AIDS is a serious disease. The name stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Millions of people have died from AIDS since the 1980s. Scientists have not yet found a cure, but they can treat the disease effectively.
Tiny particles called viruses cause many diseases. The particular virus that causes AIDS is called human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV enters the body through contact with infected blood or other body fluids. Coughing, sneezing, and handshaking do not spread the virus.
HIV kills helper T cells in the body. Helper T cells are a type of white blood cell. They are part of the body’s immune system, which fights off disease. The body loses its ability to fight off disease when its helper T cells die.
A new HIV infection often causes symptoms, or signs, that are similar to those of influenza (flu). They usually last only a week or two. After they clear up, an infected person may show no signs of illness for years. However, such a person can still pass the virus to other people. Because of their weak immune systems, most HIV-infected people eventually come down with other infections. A person who has these infections is said to have AIDS.
The most common infections include tuberculosis and a certain type of pneumonia. People with AIDS also frequently develop a cancer called Kaposi sarcoma. The AIDS virus may also attack the nervous system and cause brain and eye damage. Death often follows.
Prevention and Treatment
People can prevent HIV infection. The main way to do this is to keep out of contact with possibly infected blood or body fluids. If a person is infected, certain drugs can stop HIV from doing damage. Drug treatment has added years to the lives of many people with HIV infections.